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Escher Looking Glass by whendt

previous parts can be found here :

Is the digital world really like spaghetti ?

The fight against technical debt is one of the CTO/CIO major challenge. What's funny with the technical debt is that we often associate it to spaghetti: a clear picture that says, if you try clean a small part, you'll probably have to clean everything. But there is bias coming from this spaghetti idea we have of the IT mess:

  • We are over-estimating links and under-estimating contextual knowledge on linked components;
  • We are considering the nodes like black-box, yet these black-box can really be complex, besides the fact that it keeps changing over time.


The spaghetti nightmare


The Cabling Technical Debt: Awful Yellow Spaghetti.

What we expect to see on any data-center: clean and labeled cabling.
Note : The label on the cable gives you an entry to understand the context of the cable.

Most of the visualization tools we saw are graph (nodes and links) based. Seen in a large scale, these visualizations will also look like spaghetti, and it is funny to see how we are reducing our visualization capabilities to what we know (or what we believe to be true paradigm).

The digital world is much more like connected broccoli

Reducing IT to spaghetti was probably a good idea at the time we were racking and pulling network cables everywhere across the data centers, but these times are over. This is virtualization and Software As Everything time and consequently IT, is much much more dense than any spaghetti.

For those who are not experts, the artistic draw which can probably give a better idea of how this digital world looks like, are some fractal draws. Indeed, these fractal draws have something common with the digital world: There are component repetitions everywhere!

Box city fractal



When mapping the digital world we're trying to map something we can not see. We - as operational expert - can only imagine how the runtime system looks like according to some architecture diagrams and do the reconciliation with some technical operations on the runtime. The technical operations done on the runtime will define our expertise and our silo in the organization.

Some organizations may have a LOT of silos/experts and most of the time there is a lot of work to improve the communication between these silos/experts. This is one of DevOps target. And clearly one of the major weakness of current DevOps tools is visualization and knowledge management.


Fractals in Ghost In The Shell


Information System visualization in Ghost In The Shell. This guy browses the running system
like I'm able to walk in some unknown city with google maps.


And finally, Ghost In The Shell visualization tools seem to be much more complete, realistic and usable
than any other product on our present market. Note the repetitive graphic patterns which could be a big fractal base.


When looking back at the software layer and the developers work, there is something fascinating when you realize that whatever the language and the complexity, they are all following the same basic patterns and models. These simple patterns and models allow you to build almost everything ! The reason why I personally prefer to compare the digital world to connected broccoli instead of spaghetti...


Brocolis is a fractal too ;)


Improving the digital world mapping with fractals and graphs

Some refresh about fractals

Fractal word has been introduced by Benoit Mandelbrot in 1975, but is the result of four centuries of mathematical research.


Mandelbrot definition of fractals


Fractal is "a rough or fragmented geometric shape that can be split into parts, each of which is (at least approximately) a reduced-size copy of the whole"


Fractals are particularly interesting when it comes to setup efficient visualization algorithms to build rough objects. It begins with an initiator which can be a really simple euclidian object, and a generator which is a simple rule you can iterate infinitely from the initiator.

Koch snowflake


Koch snowflake is a famous fractal following self-similar pattern.
It illustrate perfectly how we can build easily a really complex object
by incrementing simple geometric operations.

Koch generator and initiator.
Notice how the final result can change depending on the fractal generator.
Generating Fractals Based on Spatial Organizations

Random Koch


Randomization of Koch algorithm lead to some realistic natural landscape

Therefore fractals are widely used in the computer game or movie industry helping generating realistic natural landscapes.

Fractal Mountain


Fractal geometry help to picture mountain with few iterations and simple algorithm.
Hence the reason why fractals have been used really early to produce
genesis sequence landscape in Star Trek.

Improve the digital world visualization means improve the digital world fractal initiator

It has recently been demonstrated that complex networks are self-similar. That means they follow some power law, and that the fractal geometry tools can be applied to the study of these networks.

When speaking about the world-wide web, we're generally describing a big graph with nodes as routers and links between. But this modelization is also inefficient, as it limits the routers, just like a black-box, and, consequently, it is not helpful for the expert who needs to get the running structures of these routers. Basically, there is another graph inside the router, and it is part of the global world wide graph.

The ability to look inside the digital components becomes more and more important as long as we're pushing more and more business on these components, and as long as we're densifying the digital architecture with new technologies like VMs or containers.

Considering the graph objects (IE: nodes and links) as the world wide network's fractal initiator, it would be legitimate to improve this initiator, in order to provide a new and complete way to visualize the complex runtime we may setup in many business. This will be discussed in the next article.